熊本大学大学院理学研究科地球科学専攻(修士課程)

入試問題(平成 9年 3月13日)


専門

次の問い[1]〜[8]の中より,任意の四問を解答せよ.また,各問い毎に一枚の解答用紙を使用すること.

[1]
石灰岩分布地域の侵食の特徴とその原因について述べよ.

 

[2]
温度あるいは圧力条件の変化が鉱物の鉱物学的諸性質に及ぼす影響について,下記の鉱物群(1)〜(4)のうちから2つを選択し,鉱物例を挙げて具体的に説明せよ.
(1)
酸化鉱物(1例)
(2)
硫化鉱物(1例)
(3)
炭酸塩鉱物(1例)
(4)
珪酸塩鉱物(1例)

 

[3]
古生代末の生物の大量絶滅について解説しなさい.

 

[4]
反覆進化(iterative evolution) とは何か,具体的に例をあげて説明せよ.

 

[5]
ベッドフォ−ム(Bedform)とは何か,簡潔に説明せよ.また,ベッドフォ−ムを支配する要因を挙げて,ベッドフォ−ムを知ることにより何がわかるか説明せよ.

 

[6]
ケイ酸塩鉱物とケイ酸塩溶融体の間における,微量元素の分配について次の問に答えよ.
(1)
微量元素の分配係数を調べる方法を述べよ.また,その方法の長所短所について述べよ.
(2)
微量元素の分配を支配している要因について,具体例をあげて説明せよ.

 

[7]
地球の内部構造と各部分を構成する物質を記し,その知識の根拠(なぜそうだとわかるのか?)をあげよ.

 

[8]
Gibbsの相律について,NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8系の状態図を例にとって説明せよ.


語学

次の問いI,II,IIIを解答せよ.また,各問い毎に一枚の解答用紙を使用すること.

I.
次の英文を和訳せよ.
Over the past 20 years, geologists have come to realize that the real object of their studies is the Earth, and that their favorite subjects, whether basalts, earthquakes, or the Tibetan plateau (for example) are only the means to understanding the Earth itself as a complete entity. Geology has thus acquired a global perspective.,

The study of any particular regional problem is only of general interest in providing good foundations to investigate general phenomena. But this same particular problem can only be completely understood if its global context is taken into account. The geology of the Andes is only one of many examples of subcontinental subduction and, as such, its study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of subduction. However, at the same time, understanding the geology of the Andes is today no longer possible without relating it to the geological history of the eastern Pacific, reconstructing the relative movements of the East Pacific Rise and the Nazca Ridge against South America and, in a wider sense, in the context of the history of the Pacific Ocean as a whole.

 

II.
次の英文を和訳せよ.
At the start of the 20th century, when the population of the Earth was 1.6 billion, the natural resources of the world appeared to be inexhaustible. As we approach the end of this century, the situation has changed dramatically. The world population is rapidly approaching 6.0 billion, and serious questions have been raised about the future availability of adequate natural resources. Alarming predictions have been made about the decline of living standards based on extrapolations of present rates of consumption of natural resources. These concerns are based in part on our instinctive urge to assure the survival of the human species on Earth, not just for another century, but for all time.

 

III.
次の和文を英訳せよ.
過去200年にわたる詳細な層位学的研究の結果,大陸の上を覆う一連の地層に海進と海退が交互に記録されていることが分かった.それが,地球規模で起こった海水面の上昇と下降によるのか,あるいは限定された地域の構造運動によるものかは,絶えず論争される課題である.